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Napoléon I, Laureate head right, Denomination within wreath Coin rarity : extremely rare, Coin condition : VF(30-35), Country : France, Catalog Initials : KM, Composition : Silver, Coinage Type : Decimal Coinage, Denomination : Franc, Theoretical Coin Weight Entire (gr) : 5, Fineness : 0.90000000000000002, Coin name : Napoléon I, Mint name : Toulouse, Mint Mark : M, Actual Weight Entire (oz) : 0.1447, Year : 1809, First Issue Date : 1809, Period : 1809, KM : 692.10, Product type : Coin, Specific remark in title : Extremely rare, Mintage : 8855


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Thursday, March 4, 2021

Dearly Beloved


It seems to me that popular public figures, places, and things are more and more described as "beloved". I am not talking about the long-standing use of "beloved" with relatives and pets, especially in obituaries, but more with inanimate things and public figures with whom one has no personal attachment. It's a little difficult to do a corpus frequency search on this, but recently I have seen the following described as "beloved"

Pizza Pizza, a Canadian pizza chain

Canadian Tire, a chain of hardware stores ("Beloved Canadian Tire"??? Really?)

film and TV franchises and series

jazz performances

restaurants (especially when reporting that they are ceasing business)

a cannabis brand

TV hosts and actors

hockey sticks

the Snowbirds (Canadian aerobatic team)

Swiss Chalet rotisserie chicken 

Corn Flakes and All-Bran


It all seems hyperbolic to me. Why are restaurants and actors always "beloved"?  Do I really feel about my Corn Flakes as I do about my family?

The New Oxford Dictionary of English does in fact approach this diminished sense, but only in a specific structure:


dearly loved: his beloved son.
  • ■ (beloved by/of) very popular with (a specified set of people): the stark council estates beloved of town planners in the 1960s

The Canadian Oxford Dictionary does not, sticking with "dearly loved" alone (perhaps because the latter's Editor-in-Chief was being cranky?). But when you see the synonyms the Oxford Thesaurus provides for "beloved", the meaning is a bit over the top:

darling, dear, dearest, precious, adored, much loved, cherished, treasured, prized, highly regarded, admired, esteemed, worshipped, revered, venerated, idolized.

Would you apply any of these to Canadian Tire?

I will admit this annoys me, even though I'm supposed to appreciate sense development of words. Surely "popular" or "well-liked" or "admired" would do? 

What about you? Have you  noticed this use of "beloved"? What do you think?

How do you pronounce this word when used as an adjective before a noun? As two syllables or three? Is it "be LUVV id Canadian Tire" or "be LUVVD Canadian Tire"? Traditionally, dictionaries have recorded "be LUVV id" when the adjective is used before a noun or as a noun (as in "dearly beloved") and  "be LUVVD" for when it is used after a noun  but I believe this usage is shifting.

Monday, February 22, 2021

British Place Names


Lower Slaughter

Following my post about Sutton Hoo, many of you wrote in to share your favourite British place names, so I thought I would do some etymological research for  you. 

First up, the impossibly picturesque Upper Slaughter and Lower Slaughter (pictured above) in the Cotswolds, near Cheltenham in Gloucestershire. 

Lest you think the lovely little river was the scene of some gory battle, the explanation is much more banal. "Slaughter" in this case comes from an Old English form *slōhtre ‘muddy place’ or ‘ravine, deep channel’, probably related to our word "slough".. Not dripping with blood. 

Not far away in Oxfordshire is Chipping Norton, originally Old English cēping ‘market’ Norton 'north of' (the opposite of "sutton").

Near Salisbury in Hampshire one finds the Wallops: Nether Wallop, Over Wallop, and Middle Wallop.  This possibly comes from  Old English wella, wælla  ‘valley with a spring or stream’. OE + hop 'small enclosed valley'. Alternatively the first element may be Old English weall ‘a wall’ or walu ‘a ridge, an embankment’. This is not to be confused with our common verb "wallop" which has its own interesting story. See here: Soldiers/American Flag/Sublimation Transfers/Ready to Press/Up t

Moving a little further southwest to Dorset, we come across Piddletrenthide on the River Piddle. This is not alas from nursery talk; in Old English pidele meant simply ‘a marsh or fen’ and the town meant 'Estate on the River Piddle assessed at thirty hides’.

In  Yorkshire someone found the lachrymose-sounding Blubberhouses. This is in fact much cheerier, coming from Middle Engllsh  bluber bubble + Old English hūs: ‘(Place at) the houses by the bubbling spring’.

Sheepy Magna & Sheepy Parva Leicestershire. 

This one actually does have something to do with sheep: ‘Island, or dry ground in marsh, where sheep graze’. Distinguishing affixes are Latin magna ‘great’ and parva ‘little’.

"Bumpstead"  meant ‘Place where reeds grow’, from Old English bune reeds + stede enclosed pasture. Tihel de Helion was the name of a man who held one manor in 1086.

One reader was entertained to learn that a neighbourhood of York is known as "The Shambles". You can find the explanation here:

I hope I haven't been boring you but perhaps it is appropriate to leave  you in Norfolk with Great and Little Snoring (settlement  of the family of a man called Snear). 

Photo of Lower Slaughter by D#39;Angelo Valentino Beard Oil on Speak your Truth Mala - Tibetan Turquoise, Sandalwood and Silver

Sunday, February 14, 2021

Sutton What? Sutton Where? Sutton Hoo?

Many of you have been watching The Dig, the movie starring Ralph Fiennes and  Carey Mulligan on Netflix about the Anglo-Saxon archeological discoveries in Sutton Hoo, Suffolk (the southern part of the bulgy bit on the eastern side of England). 

You are probably thinking, "Yet another bizarre British place name!", although it cannot compete with my family's favourite when we were growing up not far from there: Six Mile Bottom.

OK, you can stop giggling now and let us apply ourselves to the place name in question. 

"Hoo" has nothing to do with  our pronoun "who". In very old Anglo-Saxon, hōh was the word for "heel". "hōh" gradually morphed into "heel" and by 1300 was not being used any more. But it survived in some place names, because hōh also meant "a projecting ridge of land shaped like a heel".

"Sutton" was a very common place name, meaning "south farmstead or village", i.e. one to the south of another settlement, 
Do you have any favourite "weird British Place Names"?

Wednesday, February 10, 2021

Slip sliding away: sled or toboggan?

When I was a kid I loved to go tobogganing. My siblings and I would take a toboggan like the one pictured above to our local park and hurtle down the toboggan runs that the parks staff set up each year. Never would I have said, "I'm taking my sled and going sledding". For me, a sled has runners and a toboggan does not.

 Furthermore, "sled" is what Americans said for this favourite Canadian winter activity. But it seems to me that I am seeing "sled" more for it. "Toboggan" is certainly not gone: it is the term the City of Toronto uses on its website. 
It is hard to compare relative frequencies of "toboggan" and "sled" scientifically since the latter has many meanings other than "toboggan":
  • 1. a low vehicle mounted on runners for conveying heavy loads or passengers over snow or ice, usu. drawn by horses, dogs, or people.
  • 2. a similar but usu. smaller vehicle, or any of various devices made of moulded plastic, used esp. by children to coast down hills for amusement.
  • 3. a snowmobile.
  • 4. Cdn (North) a covered vehicle mounted on runners and pulled by a snowmobile or tractor with caterpillar treads, used to carry freight or crew as part of a cat train.
  • 5 a bobsled  
But if we look at 1980-83 in Canadian newspapers we find no uses of "sledding" to mean "tobogganing", whereas from 2017 to 2020 there are several.
We inherited "toboggan" from an Eastern Algonquian language, either Maliseet-Passamaquoddy (spoken in New Brunswick and Maine) or Mi'kmaq (spoken in the Atlantic Provinces), probably by way of French. The elements of the native languages mean "device pulled by a cord".
A usage of "toboggan" from the South and Midwestern United States that would leave Canadians perplexed to say the least is illustrated by the following quotes:

1907   Weekly Sentinel (Fort Wayne, Indiana) 24 Apr.   If an infant has been wearing a woolen toboggan this winter, it can now be changed on a warm day to a Swiss bonnet.
1975   Raleigh (N. Carolina) News & Observer 6 Jan. 24/4   The burglar was wearing a red toboggan and tight pants, police said.

Well, now you have a bizarre image in your mind!

This is what we Canadians would call a "toque" (pronounced TUKE), a close fitting knitted cap, originally with a long tapered end (to wrap around your face to keep it warm). Toques nowadays do not have these long tapered ends, though I can attest from my childhood that they were very practical. In the States this was originally called a "toboggan cap" before being abbreviated.

Voyageur wearing the original toque

If you're Canadian, have you noticed "sled" creeping up on  "toboggan"? What do you say? Have you ever heard of a toque being called a toboggan?

 [If you receive this blog post as an email, click on "Wordlady" at the top which will take you to the blog where you can scroll down to "Post a comment".]

Saturday, January 9, 2021

Riots and kangaroos


I can't think why, but this week I have decided to talk about the word "mob", a disorderly or riotous crowd, a rabble.

Surprisingly, this is etymologically an abbreviation, its origin being classical Latin mōbile vulgus (the changeable common people, the fickle crowd). In the 1600s "mobile vulgus" came into English, but very quickly it was being abbreviated to "mobile" and thence to "mob". 

The essayist Joseph Addison was not a fan of such truncation:

1711   J. Addison Spectator No. 135. ⁋10   It is perhaps this Humour of speaking no more than we needs must which has so miserably curtailed some of our Words, in mob. rep. pos. incog. and the like.

Addison's usage objections had as much success as these things usually do, and by 1800 "mob" had pretty much supplanted its parents "mobile" and "mobile vulgus". 

Meanwhile, English migrated to Australia, where "mob" had a resounding success acquiring new meanings there and in New Zealand.

(definitions from the Macquarie Dictionary of Australian-specific meanings).

noun 1. b. Colloquial a group of people, as friends, not necessarily large: we'll invite the mob over for Saturday night.

an Australian friend of mine tells me that she thinks this is now an older-generation usage.

c.  a group of workers: a mob of shearers.

2.  a collection of animals 

In both Australia and New Zealand people refer to "mobs of sheep" as well as "flocks" and "mobs of cattle" as well as "herds".

My favourite of these usages, though, is that "mob" has become the standard collective noun for kangaroos. 

 There are birds aplenty to enjoy, plus animals including a mob of kangaroos bounding around a cemetery in Perth

There's a useful trivia question for  you!

a. Aboriginal English an Aboriginal tribe or language group,
extended family or community: all my mob; the Big River mob.

b.  a community, whether related by kinship, geography, special interest, etc.: the Newcastle mob; the Music Society mob.

Then there is the very cute

6.  a group or unit of Joey Scouts in the Scout Association.

I love "Joey Scouts"! It is parallel to our 5-7-year-old "Beavers" (also cute) in North America.  

If only a gang of kangaroos or cute mini boy scouts had been the ones to invade the US Congress this week!

Photo by David Clode on Unsplash

*From the photographer: These two wild wallabies are actually testing each other’s strength, like an arm wrestle, but I like the photo because they look like they are dancing, perhaps a waltz. This species is known as the agile wallaby, and the photo is taken in North Queensland, Australia.


**If you receive these posts in your inbox, clicking on "Wordlady" at the top will take you to the blog where you can comment or view other posts. 

Thursday, December 31, 2020

1921 Words



As always at the New Year, it is interesting to see some words that are celebrating their hundredth birthday, some older than you think and others younger. These are the first appearance in print that the OED has found.

 1. Competition between nations, regimes, etc., in the accumulation, development, or testing of weapons, esp. nuclear weapons.

1921   San Francisco Business 14 Oct. 5   Crushing burden entailed through international arms race.


  A bomb which derives its destructive power from the sudden release of a large amount of energy by fission of heavy atomic nuclei, causing damage through heat, blast, and radioactivity. Abbreviated A-bomb. Cf. atomic bomb n., hydrogen bomb n. at hydrogen n. Compounds 1a(b).With reference to quot. Khaki Leather Camera Strap Harness, Dual Camera Harness, Leather, H. G. Wells's use is cited at quot. 1914 at atomic bomb n.

1921   Color Trade Jrnl. 9 2/2   There is no remedy excepting that of blowing up Paris by an atom bomb as forecasted by H. G. Wells some years ago.
nursery and colloquial (chiefly North American).

  A blanket, esp. a child's security blanket.

1921   L. W. Kline & C. J. France in G. S. Hall Aspects Child Life & Educ. 257   Had a little blanket she would not go to sleep without. She always cried ‘My blankie, my blankie,’ till she got it.

 1. Originally U.S. History. During the Prohibition era: a cruise on which passengers were taken just far enough from the shoreline to be outside U.S. jurisdiction, so that they could buy and consume alcohol legally; (also, more generally) a boat trip on which the passengers drink a considerable amount of alcohol, often as part of a dinner-dance or similar event.

1921   Olympia (Washington) Daily Recorder 18 Apr. 1/7 (headline)    Would be Booze Cruise Ends with Drowning and Loss of Boat and Cargo

  Nothing at all, absolutely nothing.

1921   Notes & Queries 19 Nov. 418/2   The word ‘nothing’ was replaced in the Army by ‘b——r-all’—‘I did b——r-all’; ‘There was b——r-all to eat’.
Originally U.S.

  The action of comparing (the prices of) the same or similar products or services as offered by different retailers, manufacturers, etc. Also in extended use. Frequently attributive.

1921   M. H. Tolman Positions of Responsibility in Department Stores ii. §D. 84   Two comparison shopping executives had been secretaries to members of the management.
Scandinavian Decor/ Mountains Drawing/ ORIGINAL Art/ Gray Black A. int.

  English regional (Yorkshire and Lincolnshire). Expressing surprise, delight, wonder, etc.

1921   R. P. Weston & B. Lee in Catal. Copyright Entries: Pt. 3 (Libr. of Congr. Copyright Office) 16 305/2 (title of song)    Eeh! by gum, it were a real fine do!

 a. Usually with capital initial. A nationalist political movement that controlled the government of Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini (1883–1945); the principles or ideology of the fascisti (fascista n. 1a). See also fascist n. 1a, Fascismo n., and cf. sense 1b. Now historical.The movement grew out of the nationalist fasci which became prominent at the end of the First World War (1914–18), esp. with the formation of the militantly anti-communist and anti-socialist Fasci di Combattimento by Mussolini in 1919. After the formation of a coherently organized Fascist party in 1921, Mussolini became prime minister in 1922, leading to the eventual establishment of a totalitarian Fascist state.

1921   Syracuse (N.Y.) Herald 1 Feb. 2/3   No doubt fascism is a transitory phenomenon.

α. 19– Hickville.

β. 19– Hicksville.Originally and chiefly U.S.

  (The type of) an unsophisticated, rural, small town.

1921   E. O'Neill Straw i. ii. 46   Making a note that a tug boat towed two barges loaded with coal up the river, that Mrs. Perkins spent a weekend with relatives in Hickville.
  Originally North American.

 1. Unwanted or unsolicited mail or post, typically in the form of circulars, advertisements, etc., sent to a large number of addresses.

1921   Legislative, Executive, & Judicial Appropriation Bill: Hearing before U.S. Senate Comm. on Appropriations (66th Congr., 2nd Sess.) II. 2353   What we call the junk mail comes in just the same. There is no let-up at all in that, and all of that has to be handled.
Etymology: Perhaps shortened < upsidaisy int. (compare Vintage Italian Florentine Wall Sconce Gold Gilt Crystal Prisms and quot. 1925 at that entry), or perhaps a natural exclamation which has become confused with upsidaisy int.
colloquialA. int.

  Expressing apology, dismay, or surprise, esp. after an obvious but usually minor mistake.

1921   Washington Post 1 Nov. 21/4   Oops, muh dear, it's in the last where the dirty work takes place.

 1. The sound produced in a caller's telephone to indicate that a connection with the number dialled has been made and the called phone is ringing; = ringing tone n. at ringing n.1 Compounds.

1921   Kansas City (Missouri) Star 1 Jan. 9   Listen for the busy signal or the reverting ring tone which tells you your party is being rung.
colloquial (originally U.S.).

  Something calculated to evoke sadness or sympathy, usually a sentimental film, play, song, story, etc. Also applied to a person and, rarely, to an event.

1921   Double Dealer II. 143/2   But no one today, I believe, mistakes his [sc. James Whitcomb Riley's] productions for anything but somewhat shallow, fairly easy tear-jerkers.
Originally U.S.

  Chiefly in to-do list: designating a (notional) list of tasks requiring attention or completion, sometimes ordered by priority. Also: designating an item in such a list.

1921   Fort Wayne (Indiana) Jrnl. 6 Nov. iii. 2/8   Again she consulted her ‘To Do’ list.
Etymology: < Yiddish zaftik, literally ‘juicy’ < German saftig juicy (already in Middle High German as saffec , saffic ) < Saft juice (see sap n.1) + -ig -y suffix1.
North American. colloquial.

  Of a woman: having a full, rounded figure; plump.

1921   Broadway Brevities Dec. 20   Isn't Diana Allen getting very zoftig?
Photo by Natalie Dmay on Unsplash

Tuesday, December 8, 2020

Shots and jabs


The news is all about the new COVID-19 vaccines. Thank God (and armies of scientists) for them.

But have you noticed that while we in North America will be lining up for our "shots", people in Britain go for "jabs"?

I have to say that "jab" has always had rather violent connotations for me, as if the medical professional were to come hurtling at me and aggressively poke my arm with the hypodermic (possibly even with a blood-curdling yell). I expect for the British these violent connotations have faded away, just as they have for us with "shot".  I doubt that any North American heading into the flu shot clinic has visions of their pharmacist whipping out a gun and unloading vaccine-laden bullets into their arm.

Both of these words seem to have started their injection-related careers in American drug users' slang in the early 20th century. By the 1930s "shot" had started on its path to respectability, and by the 60s was a quite standard term for injections.

By the 1980s "jab" had become the standard term in Britain. I have no idea why British English opted for this while other varieties preferred "shot," but such are the ways of language.

"Shot" is a very old word, dating from Anglo-Saxon times. "Jab" is a much more recent word, dating from the 1820s, but it is derived from an older Scottish word "job", used of a bird poking with its beak, possibly in imitation of the sound made by the bird.

For the story behind "vaccine", please click here:

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About Me

Canada's Word Lady, Katherine Barber is an expert on the English language and a frequent guest on radio and television. She was Editor-in-Chief of the Canadian Oxford Dictionary. Her witty and informative talks on the stories behind our words are very popular. Contact her at to book her for speaking engagements; she can tailor her talks to almost any subject. She is also available as an expert witness for lawsuits.